As idiomatically specific as the Minuet, Waltz or Two-step, Reggae's double-time/single-time identity, where the downbeat supplants the back beat, has grabbed its place in history. Stewart Copeland's micro-time led me to the heart of Reggae. I was resistant at first. Being a "dyed-in-the-wool" Rhythm and Blues devotee, I initially thought of Reggae as middle-of-the-road R & B, a non-committal approach rather than the darkness of R & B's soul. But as I got deeper into its processes, I not only felt its lightness of being, but its limitless ability to transform anything to sit on its rhythmic obstinato. The first movement of Symphony #2-REGGAE was completed May 8, 1984. I continued working over the next three years completing the four movement work May 20, 1987. Jamaican in origin, this rock music, with its blues style, often with a political or religious message, was derived from Rastafarian beliefs, a sect devoted to Haile Selassie, former Emperor of Ethiopia, who believed himself to be a descendant of Sheba. Espousing love, peace and ganja (marijuana) Rastas wear their hair in dreadlocks, rope-like boys strands. ORCHESTRATION Piccolo 2 Flutes 2 Oboes English Horn 2 Bb Clarinets Bass Clarinet 2 Bassoons Contra Bassoon 4 Horns in F 3 Bb Trumpets 2 Tenor Trombones Bass Trombone Tuba (six percussionists) 4 Timpani (30”, 28”, 25” 23”) Snare Bass Marimba Vibraphone Xylophone Glockenspiel Tubular Bell (“B”4 & “E”4) Suspended Cymbal Crash Cymbal Tam tam Bongos 14-16-22 1st Violins 12-14-18 2nd Violins 10-12-14 Violas 8-10-12 Celli 6-8-10 Double Basses Duration: (49:20)



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